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The Mystery of the Incarnation

           The incarnation of God the Son is primarily for the salvation of the world. Salvation means the restoration of the world to its direct and unimpeded relation with God.


         As God made it, the world was very good. But evil came into it. God, who made the world, is ever concerned and active to save it from the clutches of evil and restore it to the destiny for which it was created. Incarnation is God’s supreme act in saving the world.


         God the Son entered the earthly realm of existence in a unique way by taking upon Himself a perfectly real human life. This incarnation, by which God the Father, who created the world through God the Son and perfects it through God the Holy Spirit, manifests through the Son His saving work for the world and completes it in the Holy Spirit. As creation is the work of God, so is redemption.


         God, who created the world, made man the crown of creation. Made in God’s image and endowed with creaturely freedom and autonomy, man seeks God and reflects on His being and nature. Through the wrong exercise of man’s free will, there came upon him and the world at large misery and suffering, as well as sin and evil. The salvation of the world, therefore, required pre-eminently the healing of man. It is this healing that the Incarnation is believed by the Church to have aimed to accomplish.


          In the Incarnation, God the Son united to Himself real and perfect manhood. Conceived in her womb by Mary the Virgin through the work of the Holy Spirit, He was born into the world as a real man. At the very moment of His conception, through the operation of the Holy Spirit, a personal manhood was formed in the Virgin’s womb in union with God the Son. Thus, God the Son united to Himself the manhood taken from the human mother and was born as the perfect God and perfect man in the real sense.


         Jesus Christ, the incarnate God the Son, is one Person, continuous with Godhead and continuous with manhood. In Him, Godhead and manhood continue each in its integrity and perfection, in a state of indivisible and unconfused union.


         On this ground, the Church of Ethiopia, with the other Oriental Orthodox Churches, affirms that Jesus Christ is not of two natures, but of one incarnate nature of God the Word. The “one” here is not meant to ignore the dynamic continuance of either Godhead or manhood in the one Christ, but to confess a real incarnation whereby God the Son entered our world as a man. He is indeed God the incarnate Son even while He is found to undergo the frailty of manhood.


         Living as He did a life of unbroken communion with God, He was absolutely sinless. Maintaining this union in the most inward and real sense, He entered into our battle with sin and evil as a man and fell victim to our death. By His suffering and ignominious death on the cross, He scored a victory over the forces of evil, and by His resurrection from the dead, He lives eternally in His natural unity with God the Father and God the Holy Spirit, and in His unbroken and indivisible union with manhood. In Jesus Christ, then, we have the incarnate, crucified, and glorified God the Son, who is Himself our brother, signifying the final destiny awaiting the human race.


          Regarding the Person of Jesus Christ, there have also been serious discussions in Ethiopia. But the Church holds to the view that He is God the Son in His incarnate state. Born of God the Father eternally as God the Son, He was born of the Virgin Mother as a real man. There are a number of affirmations in the Anaphora regarding Him, some of which may be noted here.

1. Jesus Christ was born of Our Lady Mary for our salvation. He who does not believe in His birth from Holy Mary, let him be anathema.

2. In this way, after being conceived in the womb of the Virgin, God the Son was born as a man. By His conception, God the Son became incarnate, “taking our nature.” The Son, who is born of the Father without a mother, was born as a man without a Father. “He put on mortal flesh and made it immortal,” and He came truly into the world “clothed in the body which He took from us.”

3. His human birth was a unique event, whereby God the Son “came down through the will of His Father” and was made man. “His humanity was not inferior because He had no Father to be born of His seed.” This is the incarnation, whereby God the Son entered the historical realm in order to save it forever.

4. In the Incarnation, God the Son united to Himself manhood and “made it one with His Godhead without mixture or confusion, without division or alteration.” Therefore, “His Godhead was not

 separated from His manhood, not for an hour, nor for the twinkling of an eye.”

5. God the Son came to us “without being separated from His Godhead.” After being born, “He grew like an infant and grew little by little until He matured like a man. At the age of thirty, He was baptized in the Jordan.” He was tempted by the devil; “He hungered and thirsted,” He went about “preaching the gospel of the kingdom of Heaven.” By this, He who is perfect like God the Father and is His image walked among us in our image.

6. He suffered passion and death voluntarily on our behalf and for our sakes. He became hungry as a man and granted food to many with very little bread. He thirsted as a man who died but changed water into wine as being able to give life to all.

        They beat Him on the head as a servant, and He set free from the yoke of sin as Lord of all. He suffered all. He cured the blind with His spittle and gave us the Holy Spirit by receiving the spittle of the unclean. He who forgives sin was accused as a sinner by them. The judge of judges was judged by them. He was crucified on the tree to destroy sin and was crucified with the sinner to consort with the righteous. He died through His will and was buried willingly; He died to destroy death, He died to give life to the dead; He was buried to raise those who were buried, to keep the living, to justify the impure, to justify the sinners, to gather together those who were scattered, and to turn the sinners to glory and honor.

          Such passages in the Anaphora are too numerous to be reproduced or even noted in the present context. They show that Jesus Christ was at once God and man without division or confusion. The same Christ, God the Son incarnate, expressed the divine actions as well as the human. He is one Christ, in whom God and man are indivisibly united.

7. As to the absolute reality of suffering and death, there are passages almost without number. We shall reproduce here two of them, one taken from the Anaphora of St. James of Serug, and the other from the Anaphora of St. Dioscorus. The priest who celebrates using the first of these two Anaphoras says in prayer:


         O Lord, Thou wast struck with the hands of a servant, beaten with sticks, pierced with a spear, and they caused Thee to drink a little gall with vinegar. While Thou wast God able to prevent them, Thou didst not prevent them, Thou didst become patient even to death; all this Thou didst accept for the love of man.


         The Anaphora of St. Dioscorus contains the following passages bearing on the point at issue in the present context. The priest says there in prayer:


         He was laid in the manger of the cattle, received the presents of His kingdom, and wept as infants do, asking for food from the breast of His mother. As to suffering and death, in particular, we have passages like the following. They crucified Him on the tree, nailed Him with nails, beat Him on the head with sticks, pierced His side with a spear, to Him who gave drink to the Israelites from a rock they gave to drink gall mixed with myrrh in His thirst. The immortal died, died to destroy death, died to quicken the dead as He promised them with the word of covenant.

8. Death was not the end of His dispensation. “He rose from the dead, absolutely without corruption, and set us free from the yoke of sin.” The risen Christ ascended into heaven and is with God the Father. He has triumphed over death and decay.

         These and many other passages in the Liturgy show that the manhood of Christ was absolutely real and perfect. But everywhere the emphasis is on the unity of Jesus Christ. It is affirmed that He is God the Son in His incarnate state. As regards the Incarnation, it is clearly shown that He was conceived in the Virgin’s womb and that He was born as a real man. At the very moment of His conception, through the Holy Spirit, actual manhood was formed from the human mother in union with Himself. It is to Him who was thus conceived that the Virgin gave birth. Therefore, Jesus Christ is indivisibly one. The two natures of Godhead and manhood which came into the union in Him continue in the one Christ, each in its absolute integrity and perfection with its respective properties, without change or division. Each of them continues in its dynamic reality, not in a quiescent state so that Christ is God and man at the same time.

The Church of Ethiopia, with the other Oriental Orthodox Churches, has refused to accept the Chalcedonian Definition of the Faith with the affirmation that Christ is “made known in two

 natures.” If by the expression the Churches which accept the Definition mean only that Godhead and manhood continue in the one Christ dynamically, this is the teaching of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. On the other hand, if the expression is taken in the sense that Godhead and manhood continue in Christ only in a state of moral union, there is a basic difference on this issue between the churches of the Chalcedonian tradition and the Church of Ethiopia, which should be noted.

The Incarnation (St. Athanasius)

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